What is Majeed Syndrome?
Majeed syndrome is a rare genetic condition that causes a host of symptoms, including some that afflict the skin. It is not something that can be ‘caught’ later in life, but rather something present from birth, that will likely present itself early in the patient’s life. Majeed syndrome is congenital, present from birth and inherited from the parents.
Majeed syndrome is very similar to Sweet’s syndrome, primarily for its central skin-related (or cutaneous) symptom, netrophilic dermatosis.
Majeed syndrome is a tumor necrosis factor receptor periodic syndrome. What this means is that it is a difficulty affecting the tumor necrosis factor receptors of the skin. The tumor necrosis factor is ordinarily an element of the immune system meant to wash out old cells. It assigns tags to cells that need to be destroyed, and particular defensive white blood cells (called ‘macrophages’) engulf and neutralize them. With Majeed syndrome, and other tumor necrosis factor periodic syndromes, this results in erroneous immune responses. What this means is that the body acts as though there are cells to be cleaned out, when there are in fact none. This results in the host of symptoms that composes Majeed syndrome and other TNF receptor periodic syndromes.
Who gets Majeed Syndrome?
Majeed syndrome is genetically inherited. Like other TNF receptor periodic syndromes, it is only passed along at birth by parents possessing the appropriate mutations. As consequence, it is extremely rare and extremely nondiscriminatory.
Some genetic diseases attach themselves to the specific X or Y chromosome that differentiates most females from most males. These are, specifically, the sex chromosomes, and the chromosomes that come up most frequently when chromosomes are mentioned for any reason outside the study of genetics. These conditions can then only be developed by individuals of the appropriate sex. However, most genetic conditions, including Majeed syndrome, apply to the commonly shared chromosomes. As consequence, males and females are equally likely to suffer from Majeed syndrome, or more appropriately, neither men nor women are more likely to suffer from it.
Neither ethnicity nor circumstances of birth play a role. Majeed syndrome is genetic, not epigenetic. There are no prevailing factors that make an individual more or less likely to come to suffer from Majeed syndrome other than the triggering genetic makeup being present in vitro.
What causes Majeed Syndrome?
Majeed syndrome is caused by a single particular genetic mutation that results in dysfunction of the tumor necrosis factor receptors. This results in a volatile autoimmune response that, with no true threat to attack, afflicts the body proper with symptoms of an illness that simply are not there.
Most symptoms of an illness actually have very little to do with the illness itself. Pathogens make one ill, but they do not necessarily make one feel ill. For instance, diseases that have ‘fever’ as a symptom do not themselves usually cause the temperature of the body to rise. Rather, the temperature of the body rises as the immune system activates in an attempt to kill off the invading pathogen. It’s a defensive mechanism that happens to be uncomfortable for the individual being defended. Similarly, the swelling and dermatosis caused by Majeed syndrome is nothing more than the activation of the immune system in the affected zones when no such response is necessary.
What does Majeed Syndrome cause?
Majeed syndrome causes an erroneous immune response. Effectively, what this means is that the body responds powerfully to an invader that simply isn’t there. It causes the symptoms of an illness being fought off without the pathogens that would cause that illness being present.
The three primary symptoms of Majeed syndrome are chronic osteomyelitis, dyserythropoetic anemia, and neutrophilic dermatosis.
Osteomyelitis is a form of bone infection. Many conditions qualify as a form of osteomyelitis; in this case, it results in extreme bone and joint pain. Dyserythropoetic anemia is a particular kind of blood infection that similarly causes a painful immune response.
Neutrophilic dermatosis is the primary cutaneous symptom, and why Majeed syndrome earns its comparison to the better-known Sweet’s syndrome. Neutrophilic dermatosis is a form of skin condition brought on by the welling up of neutrophil. Neutrophil is a fluid carried by the body to transport white cells from place to place. These white cells are better known as macrophages, and they are the part of the immune system responsible for engulfing and neutralizing foreign invaders and other harmful elements in the body. As such, neutrophil is a key component in the immune system, but in the case of neutrophilic dermatosis, it becomes problematic, welling up where it shouldn’t. This can cause painful swelling of areas of the skin, but it frequently does not cause inflammation, as is characterized by redness, warmth and swelling.
How serious is Majeed Syndrome?
Majeed syndrome is a chronic condition and consequently quite serious. It is impossible to contract Majeed syndrome from any source, as one can only be born with it. However, it is a congenital defect, and related to a mutated cellular structure at that. It cannot be cured, because it is a defect, and the nature of the defect as a mutation means it cannot be repaired with surgical intervention either.
Further, Majeed syndrome can be extremely debilitating. All of the symptoms are painful and can severely complicate even the most minor of simultaneous conditions.
While Majeed syndrome is not known to be fatal, the complications and debilitation of its symptoms coupled with its chronic nature make it a remarkably tenacious opponent.
What does Majeed Syndrome treatment look like?
Data surrounding Majeed syndrome treatment is limited. Most TNF receptor periodic syndromes are genetic in origin and consequently have a very limited pool of individuals to draw data from. Consequently, few if any studies have been done to elucidate the most effective treatments for Majeed syndrome. That said, Majeed syndrome can be strongly opposed by certain immunosuppressants.
Immunosuppressants do not turn the immune system off or prevent it from fighting off other infections completely, but rather restrict how active it is. Autoimmune conditions that turn the immune system against the body can be effectively fought with immunosuppressants because immunosuppressants keep the immune system from overacting and harming the body. The primary risk surrounding immunosuppressants, however, is that they keep the body from defending as aggressively against some pathogens. While immunosuppressants do not by any means remove all defense, they can leave someone somewhat more vulnerable to infections.
Other symptomatic treatments may include analgesics or painkillers to help deal with the pain and discomfort. As a contrast to most TNF receptor periodic syndromes, however, the swelling caused by the neutrophilic dermatosis is not a type of inflammation, and anti-inflammatories will not have any effect.
How do I know if I have Majeed Syndrome?
Majeed syndrome is very rare, and cannot be self-diagnosed. That said, Majeed syndrome can be easily identified by a medical professional. A positive diagnosis can be confirmed with very thorough testing. The symptoms are fairly distinctive in a cluster, however, so this may not be necessary.
Generally, Majeed syndrome is diagnosed early in life. As a congenital condition tied to a genetic mutation it frequently presents with symptoms fairly early. However, anyone suffering from symptoms cogent with Majeed syndrome should seek advice from a medical professional immediately.